가이 확스는 누구였나, 가면 뒤에 있는 사람?


2013115일 런던, 예산 감축 및 에너지 가격에 반대하는 시위를 하는 동안, 폭동진압 경찰관들 앞에 가이 확스가면을 쓰고 있는 한 시위자. PHOTOGRAPH BY ANDREW WINNING/REUTERS


입력 2019.10.5.

내셔널 지아그래픽 원문 2018.11.4.

 

[시사뷰타임즈] -본문을 우리 말로 옮기기에 앞서-

 

몇 년 전, 국제적 해킹을 벌였던 한 단체원들은 모두 윗 사진에 있는 가면들을 착용한 채 자신들이 해킹 사건을 벌이고 있다고 말했는데, ‘가이 확스라고 불리는 이 가면의 유래와 가이 확스라는 인물에 대해 내셔널 지아그래픽이 소개하는 글 원문을 올려 놓았습니다.


바쁘지만, 틈틈이 우리 말로 옮겨 가급적 빠른 시일 내에 완역을 해놓을 것입니다. 많은 관심 갖고 읽어 주시기 바랍니다.  -시사뷰타임즈- 




오늘날 시위의 상징물인 가이 확스는 우선 반역자의 얼굴인 바, 1605년 영의 의회를 폭파시켜 날려버림으로써 사람들을 죽이려는 음모를 꾸몄던 까닭이다.

 

고조된 긴장감: 160510월말 영국은 영국 남자 귀족인 몬티글 경이 수수께끼 같은 편지를 받으면서 긴장감이 고조돼 있었다. 왕 그리고 영국의 나머지 귀족들과 함께, 몬티글은 며칠 뒤인 115일 의회 개회식에 참여할 작정으로 있었다.

 

서명이 없는 이 편지는 거두절미하고 곧바로 요점으로 나아갔는데: “각하, 사랑하는 마음에서 난 당신의 친구들 몇 명을 거론하며, 당신이 보존하고 있는 것에 대해 주의를 하고, 그렇기에 난 당신에게 당신의 인생을 소중히하면서 의회에 참석하는 횟수를 바꿔볼 핑계를 몇 가지 고안해 보라고 충고하려는 것입니다...동요하는 모습들은 전혀 없지만, 의원들이 끔찍한 타격을 입을 것이기 때문입니다

 

수수께끼 속에서 편지를 보낸 자는 그러더니 몬티글에게 편지 내용을 다 읽은 뒤엔 태워버리라고 촉구했다. 천주교 신자인 몬티글은 그런 짓은 아지 않았다. 곧 자신과 같은 종교주의자들을 에워싸게 될 소름돋는 처벌에서 자신을 구하기 위해, 몬티글은 이 편지를 제임스 1세 왕의 수석 장관인 라벗 쎄씰에게 제출했다. 영국의 많은 개신교인들은 천주교 소수 집단 사람들이 현재의 군주정을 뒤엎고 외국의 기금과 자금 원조로 천주교 정부를 세울 지도 모른다고 의심을 하고 있었는데, 이 편지 내용이 이들의 의혹을 확인해 주었던 듯하다.


음모임을 경고하면서 천주교 동료 몬티글 경에게 이 성급한 편지를 쓴 사람은 누굴까? 이 편지는 정부로 하여금 음모를 좌절시키게 해 줄 수도 있었지만, 이 편지를 쓴 사람의 정체는 수백년 동안 역사가들에게 수수께끼이어 왔다.HULTON ARCHIVES/GETTY IMAGES

 

이 편지는 제임스 왕에게로 갔는데, 왕은 우선 이 협방이 진정한 것인지 의문을 품었다. 왕족들의 회의론에도 불구하고, 114, 써퍽 주의 백작은 웨슷민스터 궁과 궁의 주변 지역 -영국 의회가 115일 만나기로 돼있는- 을 수색했다. 백작은 걱정할 만한 것을 발견한 것은 전혀 없지만, 사적으로 임차한 저장실에 유별나게도 많은 양의 장작이 있다는 것을 알게 됐다고 보고했다.

 

전설의 탄생

 

4일 좀 늦게, 타머스 니벳 경 -미성년자지만 믿을만한 왕족 관계자- 은 의회 주위에 있는 여러 건물들에 대한 2차 수색을 감독했다. 마찬가지로 똑같은 저장실이 니벳의 관심을 끌었고, 이 저장실을 경비해 보기로 결정했다. 니벳은 경비원처럼 옷을 입지 않고, 망토를 걸치고, 박차가 달린 긴 장화를 신었는데, 신속이 말 등에 올라타 도주를 하기에나 더 어울리는 차림새인 듯했다.

 

니벳이 데리고 간 사람들은 그곳에 있는 장작을 다른 곳으로 옮기면서 장작 속에 숨겨져 있던 화약 36배럴을 발견했다. 자신의 이름을 좐 좐슨이라고 말한 남자에게 성냥들(긴 도화선)”이 있음을 알게 됐다. 니벳은 상하 양원이 의원들, , 왕족 대부분, 그리고 나라의 유력 인사들 모두를 폭파시켜 날려 버리겠다는 경천동지할 음모를 밝혀낸 것이었다. 목적은 개신교 쪽인 잉글런드 지방에 로마 가톨릭 정권을 수립한 뒤 제임스 왕의 딸 일리저버스 -본인은 응하지 않을- 꼭두각시로 내세우겠다는 것이었다


체포돼 고문을 받으면서, 좐좐슨은 자신이 북부 잉글런드에서 왔으며 자신의 실제 이름은 가이 확스라고 밝혔다. 그는 자신이 화약 음모단으로 알려지게 된 몇 명의 천주교 공모자들 중 하나였다. 그가 우두머리 주모자는 아니었지만, 확스는 영국 역사상 가장 유명한 음모꾼들 중 가장 잘 알려진 인물이 됐다. 그를 체포하는 장면은 수도 없는 교과서, 소설, 대중적인 역사 작업, 그리고 영화 속에 그려졌는 바: 키 크고, 긴 장화를 신고 수염이 있으며, 어두운 망토, 챙이 넓은 모자 등등이었다. 아직도 115일이면 영국 도처에서 모닥불에 태우는 것이 있는데, 그게 바로 확스의 모형이다.

 

가이 확스: 그 당시와 지금

 

1605년의 화약 음모가 있자, 의회는 추수감사절 날인 115일 칙령을 내렸는데, 이 날이 확스의 밤이라고 알려지게 됐다. 1600년대에, 확스는 천주교를 대표하는 자가 됐는데, 1605년 나온 소책자 속에 그가 있었기 때문이다. ‘하느님 자비에 감사하는 추모라는 제목의 글은 구교도 음모사건에 대한 설명이었으며 런던교에 반역자확스의 머리가 대못에 위에 꽂혀 있는 모습을 배경으로 하고 있다. 하지만, 확스의 모습은 세월이 흐르면서 바뀌어 왔다.

 

[시사뷰타임즈 주]

Popish Plot(구교도 음모 사건): 영국의 천주교 교도가 국왕 Charles 에 대하여 기도했다고 하는 가공의 음모, 권력을 잡는 수단으로 Titus Oates가 날조한 것(1678). 결국, 이글 최상단에 있는 익명 탈은, 날조되고 사실도 아니었던 사건 속의 가이 확스를 멋대로 그린 그림들이 세월 속에 바뀌어 가면서 현재의 익명 탈 모습으로 자리잡은 것이니, 이 탈을 사용하는 것은 아찌보면, 날조하여 무고한 사람을 죽인 자들의 간악함에 동참하는 것이 된다. 


극단적 조치들

 

하지만, 400년도 더 전의 금요일 밤에 체포된 남자의 동기를 이해하기 위해선, 오늘날과는 다른 잉글런드와 유럽을 조사할 필요가 있다. 확스와 동료 공모자들은 바로 자기 나라의 국왕과 정부에 테러 공격을 가하려 있는데 50년 전에 일어난 종교적 봉기 때문이었다.

 

종교개혁이 촉발시킨 정치/종교적 불안정성은 유럽 전역에 걸쳐 천주교와 개신교가 맞 대결을 펼치게 만드는 결과를 낳았었다. 잉글런드에서의 종교적 불화는 1558년 일리저버스 2세가 즉위하는 결과를 낳았다. 그 이듬해 일리저버스와 고문들은 종교적 타결책을 새로 만들었는데, 개신교를 국가적 교회가 되도록 구상한 것이었다. 이 구상은, 주교들을 그대로 있게 함에도 불구하고 군주정은 물론이고 전통적인 교회 법정들 및 일부 종교개혁 전 의식 관행들도 최우선 가치로 삼았다.


많은 영국 가톨릭 교도들은 1559년의 결정을 받아들이길 거부한다. 그 당시 국가의 모든 주제는 기독교성을 고수해야 한다고 유럽에선 일반적으로 받아ᅟᅳᆯ여져 있었다. 이러한 종교적 통일 형태를 성취하기 위해, 일리저버스 정권은 세례, 결혼 그리고 장례식 등을 포함한 가톨릭 숭배를 금지했다. 가톨릭 적인 것을 실행하면 법으로 처벌됐다. 상습범에겐 매우 고액으로 물렸던 벌금이 영국 교회 의식에 참여를 거부하는 자들에게 부과됐다. 가톨릭 관련 책을 찍어내거나 수입하는 것은 중대한 반역죄가 됐다. 외국에서 훈련을 받은 잉글런드에 입국한 영국 가톨릭 사제들은 반역자라고 선포됐고 이 사제들을 도와주었거나 거처를 제공해주었거나 숨겨준 사람들도 똑같은 죄명을 받았다.



BY JAMES SHARPE 04 NOVEMBER 2018 

WHO WAS GUY FAWKES, THE MAN BEHIND THE MASK?

 

A popular symbol of protest today, Guy Fawkes was first the face of treason because of his role in the murderous plot to blow up the British parliament in 1605.

 

TENSIONS WERE HIGH in England in late October 1605, when an English nobleman, Lord Monteagle, received a mysterious letter. Along with the rest of England’s peers and the king, Monteagle intended to attend the opening of Parliament a few days later, on November 5.

 

The unsigned letter got straight to the point: “My lord, out of the love I bear to some of your friends, I have a care of your preservation, therefore I would advise you as you tender your life to devise some excuse to shift of your attendance at this parliament . . . for though there be no appearance of any stir, yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow”.

 

The mysterious sender then urged Monteagle to burn the letter after having read its contents. Monteaglea Catholicdid no such thing. Saving himself from the gruesome punishment that would soon engulf certain of his co-religionists, he forwarded the missive to Robert Cecil, chief minister of King James I. Many English Protestants suspected that members of the Catholic minority were plotting to topple the monarchy and impose a Catholic regime with foreign funding and aid, and this message seemed to confirm their suspicions.

 

Who wrote these hasty lines to Catholic peer Lord Monteagle, warning him of the plot? The missive enabled the government to foil the conspiracy, but the identity of its author has puzzled generations of historians. HULTON ARCHIVES/GETTY IMAGES

 

The letter made its way to King James, who doubted, at first, that the threat was genuine. Despite the royal scepticism, on November 4, the Earl of Suffolk conducted a search of the Palace of Westminster and its environs, where England’s Parliament was due to meet the next day. The earl reported that he found no substantial cause for concern, but he did notice a privately rented ground-floor storeroom that contained an unusually large amount of firewood.

 

A LEGEND IS BORN

 

Later that day, Sir Thomas Knyvett, a minor but trustworthy royal official, oversaw a second search of the buildings around Parliament. The same storeroom likewise attracted his attention, as did the man Knyvett found guarding it. He was not dressed like a watchman; instead he was wearing a cloak, boots, and spursclothes more suited, it seemed, for making a quick getaway on horseback.

 

Knyvett’s men shifted the firewood and found 36 barrels of gunpowder hidden behind it. The man, who gave his name as John Johnson, was found to have “matches” (long fuses) on his person. Knyvett had uncovered an astonishing conspiracy to blow up the members of both Houses of Parliament, the king, most of the royal family, and leading officers of state. The aim was to set up a Roman Catholic regime in Protestant England, with James I’s daughter Elizabethwho would not be in attendanceas its puppet ruler. 

 

Arrested and tortured, John Johnson revealed that he was from Yorkshire in northern England and that his real name was Guy Fawkes. He was one of several Catholic conspirators in what became known as the Gunpowder Plot. While not the ringleader himself, Fawkes became the best-known member of the most famous conspiracy in English history. His capture has been illustrated in countless schoolbooks, novels, popular works of history, and movies: a tall, bearded figure in boots, dark cloak, and dark, wide-brimmed hat. It is his figure that is still burned in effigy on bonfires around England every year on November 5.

 

GUY FAWKES: THEN AND NOW

 

Following the Gunpowder Plot in 1605, Parliament decreed November 5 a day of thanksgiving, which came to be known as Guy Fawkes Night. In the 1600s, Fawkes became a stand-in for the Catholic Church, as he was in this pamphlet published in 1630. A Thankfull Remembrance of God’s Mercie was an account of “popish plots” and included an illustration of Fawkes with London Bridge with traitors’ heads on spikes in the background. The use of Fawkes’s image, however, has changed over time. LOOK AND LEARN/BRIDGEMAN/ 

 

DRASTIC MEASURES

 

To understand the motivations of the man arrested that November night more than 400 years ago, however, it is necessary to examine an England and a Europe different from today. Fawkes and his fellow conspirators attempted to mount a terrorist attack on their own king and government because of religious upheavals occurring half a century before.

 

The political and religious instability unleashed by the Reformation had resulted in pitting Catholics against Protestants throughout Europe. In England religious strife resulted in the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. The following year she and her advisers created a religious “settlement”, which envisaged a Protestant national church. The monarch was at its head, although it retained bishops, along with the traditional church courts and some pre-Reformation ceremonial practices.

 

Many English Catholics refused to accept the 1559 settlement. In this period it was generally accepted in Europe that all subjects of a state should adhere to its official form of Christianity. To achieve this religious uniformity, the Elizabethan regime forbade Catholic worship, including performance of baptisms, marriages, and funerals. Being a practising Catholic was punishable by law. Fines, which could be very heavy for habitual offenders, were imposed on those refusing to attend Church of England services. Printing or importing Catholic books became high treason. Foreign-trained English Catholic priests who entered England were declared traitors, as were those who helped, housed, or hid them.

 

The 1823 painting “Discovery of Gunpowder Plot and the Taking of Guy Fawkes”, by Henry Perronet Briggs depicts the arrest. BRIDGEMAN/ACI 

 

All men taking administrative office, from members of Parliament to schoolteachers, had to swear an oath denying the power of the pope and recognising Elizabeth as head of the church. Elsewhere, England was involved in constant warfare in Ireland, which was populated by Catholics. English statesmen feared Spanish intervention on behalf of England’s Catholics, while, conversely, English Catholics looked to Spain for armed support in a potential rebellion.

 

English Protestant propaganda stressed atrocities committed in the name of Catholicism. The English population was also constantly reminded of the more than 280 people burned in five years by Elizabeth’s Catholic predecessor, Mary I, and the 1570 papal bull, which had declared Elizabeth illegitimate and encouraged her subjects to rebel against her. By the close of the 16th century the Spanish Armadadispatched in 1588 by Philip II of Spain, and defeated by Elizabethwas still a fresh memory, along with its mission to reimpose Catholicism in England.

 

Religion also dominated the situation on the other side of the English Channel. In France the Wars of Religion pitted French Catholics against French Protestants. Farther north, the Protestant Dutch Republic was embroiled in a bitter conflict with Spain. The sack of Antwerp by Spanish troops in 1576 provided English Protestants with another example of Catholic cruelty.

 

KING JAMES I BETWEEN TWO FAITHS

 

On taking the throne in 1603, James I had to navigate between the Puritan and Catholic faiths of his kingdom. Puritans sought to “purify” the Church of England of any remaining Catholic elements after Elizabeth I’s religious settlement of 1559. Despite having been baptised by a radical Protestant, James was too pragmatic to abandon the centre ground established by Elizabeth.

ERICH LESSING/ALBUM

 

After Elizabeth I’s death in 1603, hopes were high that her successor, James I (who had ruled Scotland as James VI), would begin a new era of peace. The son of the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, James was Protestant, but English Catholics were hopeful he would be more sympathetic to them. Even Spanish agents expressed doubts about stirring up a Catholic uprising in England now that James had taken the throne. International relations took a more placid turn as well. At the signing of the Treaty of London of 1604, England agreed to end aid to the Protestant Dutch, and Spain agreed to give no military assistance to English Catholics.

 

CATESBY AND COMPANY

 

These developments helped quiet the minds of some of England’s Catholic dissidents. English Catholicism was characterised by gentry leadership, which often had both sufficient influence and money. Many were well-positioned enough to bear the disadvantages loaded upon them and became “church papists”, conforming publicly to the 1559 religious settlement while privately practicing their religion.

 

Robert Catesby, the mastermind of the Gunpowder Plot, is depicted (second from right) next to Fawkes, along with the other co-conspirators in this 1794 engraving. By the 19th century Catesby’s fame was increasingly eclipsed by that of Guy Fawkes.

GILARDI/AGEFOTOSTOCK

 

Some Catholic dissidents, however, sought to overthrow Protestant rule in England. King James’s adherence to the 1559 settlement and public continuance of intolerant policies inspired some to take a more active role to place a Catholic monarch on the throne. One such person was Robert Catesby, the son of a gentry Catholic family from the English Midlands. Although less famous than Guy Fawkes today, it was, in fact, the charismatic and persuasive Catesby who organised what later became the Gunpowder Plot.

 

In his early 30s when he conceived the plot, Catesby had a strong, attractive personality. A Victorian historian declared “he is said to have exercised a magical influence on all who mixed with him”. He used his charisma to sell his belief that only extreme, spectacular violence would end the persecution suffered by English Catholics. The idea of using gunpowder had occurred to him in 1603, and Catesby began recruiting in early 1604. The plan? To blow up Parliament and King James I in the hopes that Catholic rule could be restored in the aftermath.

 

It's believed Fawkes was carrying this lantern on the night of his arrest.

BRIDGEMAN/ACI

 

The plot’s first members belonged to the disaffected Catholic gentry: thirtysomethings Thomas Winter and John Wright and the slightly older Thomas Percy. Winter travelled to Flanders, which was under Spanish rule, to seek out Spanish assistance, but Spain was not interested.

 

Luckily Winter found someone who was: Guy Fawkes, a former schoolmate of Wright. Going by the first name Guido at that time, the English Fawkes was fighting for the Spanish in Flanders. Born a Protestant in York in 1570, Fawkes later converted to Catholicism. Intelligent, tough, and cool-headed, his qualities were noted by English Catholics. Winter learned of Fawkes’s extensive expertise in explosives and convinced him to join the plot. In May 1604, at the Duck and Drake Inn in London, the five men met and swore an oath of loyalty and, most important of all, secrecy.

 

Catesby’s explosive attack on the English crown took shape in the months that followed. Percy began living in a house close to Parliament while Fawkes, by then adopting his pseudonym John Johnson, posed as his servant. The plotters began acquiring gunpowder. The conspiracy later grew to include new members who provided funds and further resources. They were Robert Keyes, Robert Winter (brother of Thomas), John Grant, Christopher Wright (brother of John), and the servant Thomas Bates.

 

In March 1605 Percy rented a basement storeroom at the Palace of Westminster. The gunpowder was then transported directly there, where, under the expert supervision of Fawkes, it could do the most damage. Three wealthy, influential menAmbrose Rookwood, Francis Tresham, and Sir Everard Digbyjoined the conspiracy, bringing the total number to 13.

 

Several times they had planned to launch the attack when Parliament opened, but delays forced them to wait. Finally, in November 1605, it appeared that the plan would finally be set in motion. It is remarkable that, with a total of 13 plotters, the conspiracy stayed secret until Lord Monteagle received his letter. Scholars have long puzzled over the identity of the sender. One candidate is Monteagle’s own brother-in-law, Francis Tresham, one of Catesby’s co-conspirators, but no conclusive proof has been found. In any case, once Monteagle handed over the letter, the search was ordered, and Fawkes arrested and brought to the Tower of London in the early hours of November 5.

 

On the orders of James’s spymaster, Robert Cecil, Fawkes was tortured on the rack in the Tower of London. Days later, Fawkes signed a confession on which his shaky signature can scarcely be read. BRIDGEMAN/ACI

 

EXECUTION AND AFTERMATH

 

Fawkes was able to resist interrogation, until King James issued an order on November 6, 1605, authorising the use of torture on Fawkes, who only then relented and confessed. By then, many of the conspirators had fled, but the king’s forces moved swiftly to hunt them down. Catesby, Percy, and Christopher Wright were killed in a shoot-out in Staffordshire in northern England with James I’s soldiers. Catesby’s death spared him from the grisly punishments meted out to traitors, but also denied historians his version of how the conspiracy unfoldedhow the idea of blowing up Parliament came to him, as well as the way in which he recruited his team of conspirators. The rest were caught, taken back to London, and convicted of treason (except for Francis Tresham, who died in prison before the trial). All who were tried were sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered.

 

Fawkes and the others were set for execution in January 1606“these wretches”, as James described them, “who thought to have blown up the whole world of this Island”. Fawkes was able to escape his full sentence. On the day of execution, he jumped from the gallows, breaking his own neck in the fall. Nonetheless, his corpse was quartered and sent to “the four corners of the kingdom”. The other men received the full measure of their sentences as a warning to other potential rebels.

 

A 1606 engraving depicting the execution of Guy Fawkes and three fellow plotters on January 31 in Westminster. The plotters are dragged on hurdles to the site, where the grisly instruments of their end await them. LAMBETH PALACE LIBRARY/BRIDGEMAN/ACI

 

King James’s reaction was remarkably circumspect. He was anxious to avoid both a pogrom against his Catholic subjects and diplomatic tensions with Catholic states. His speech to Parliament and official sermons preached by leading churchmen stressed the heinousness of the plotbut also accepted that many English Catholics were still loyal subjects. The miraculous nature of the plot’s discovery proved an important propaganda tool. Even before the executions of the plotters, Parliament passed the Thanksgiving Act of 1606 requiring every parish church in England to deliver a sermon on November 5 thanking God for deliverance from a Catholic plot.

 

Over time the day of thanksgiving morphed into Guy Fawkes Day (also called Bonfire Night) throughout the United Kingdom. Every November 5, fireworks (representing the gunpowder) and bonfires mark the occasion, with straw effigies of Fawkescalled “Guys”being burned. Despite not being the leader of the conspiracy, Fawkes became the face of it, and was elevated to lasting fame.

 

A protester wearing a Guy Fawkes mask stands in front of a line of riot police officers during a protest against budget cuts and energy prices in London, November 5, 2013. PHOTOGRAPH BY ANDREW WINNING/REUTERS

  

[/사진: NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC]



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